2017年8月11日星期五

Difference Between Translation and Localization

The Difference Between Translation and Localization for Multilingual Website Projects 

The terms website translation and website localization are often used so interchangeably, it’s not uncommon for marketers and others to be unaware of the differences—or even know that there are any. While the terms and processes share similarities, understanding what sets them apart can do more than just benefit your knowledge of the industry—it can also help you (and your brand) globalize more efficiently and profitably.

Language localization differs from translation activity because it involves a comprehensive study of the target culture in order to correctly adapt the product to local needs. Localisation can be referred to by the numeronym L10N (as in: "L", followed by ten more letters, and then "N").

The localisation process is most generally related to the cultural adaptation and translation of software, video games and websites, as well as audio/voiceover, video or other multimedia content, and less frequently to any written translation (which may also involve cultural adaptation processes). Localisation can be done for regions or countries where people speak different languages or where the same language is spoken: for instance, different dialects of Spanish, with different idioms, are spoken in Spain and in Latin American countries.

Freelance translators and staff translators alike must aim to transfer every factual detail to the translated document and do so correctly. Apart from missing a deadline, not getting simple facts – like numbers – right is one of the deadly sins of the translation profession. If you have a text which includes figures, always check their accuracy separately from spelling and grammar. Do formatting conventions of the country whose language you are translating differ from those of the source language’s country? Also always check that you have translated the complete text. Oversights are by no means as common now as they were when translators still translated from faxed pages but it always pays to double-check. CAT tools with their quality assurance features greatly simplify these tasks so that mistyped numbers and forgotten sentences become almost impossible.

Interpretation


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The English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring" (-latio in turn coming from latus, the past participle of ferre). Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another.

Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconception is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, and that translation is a straightforward mechanical process. A word-for-word translation does not take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms. Owing to the demands of business documentation consequent to the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-18th century, some translation specialties have become formalized, with dedicated schools and professional associations. The demand in the translating field is greater than ever before. Many translators work as freelancers and others are employed by international organizations as well as government agencies. Nonprofit and religious organizations also hire or contract the services of translators for document translation. Individuals who work as translators are highly intellectual.

Interpreting and translation are two closely related linguistic disciplines. Yet they are rarely performed by the same people. The difference in skills, training, aptitude and even language knowledge are so substantial that few people can do both successfully on a professional level.

Interpreting, just like translation, is fundamentally the art of paraphrasing—the interpreter listens to a speaker in one language, grasps the content of what is being said, and then paraphrases his or her understanding of the meaning using the tools of the target language. However, just as you cannot explain a thought to someone if you did not fully understand that thought, neither can you translate or interpret something without mastery of the subject matter being relayed.

Both translation and interpretation (sometimes abbreviated as T + I) require superior language ability in at least two languages. That may seem like a given, but in fact there are many working translators whose language skills are not up to the task. You can usually recognize these unqualified translators by extremely low rates, and also by wild claims about being able to translate any language and subject.

Mandarin vs. Cantonese, CHS vs. CHT

Chinese Language: Traditional vs. simplified

In mainland China a simplified writing system is used, whereas in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas regions the traditional script is being used. Starting from the second half of the nineteenth century, there was a growing consensus that the writing system constituted an obstacle to the achievement of a higher literacy rate. The simplified writing system differs in two ways from the traditional writing system: (1) a reduction of the number of strokes per character and (2) the reduction of the number of characters in common use (two different characters are now written with the same character). A large-scale reform was continued after the founding of the PRC. In 1955 1,053 variant characters were eliminated. In 1956, the Scheme of Simplified Chinese Characters, known later as the First Scheme, was promulgated by the PRC government. It was composed of 525 simplified characters and 54 simplified basic components of characters. The Second Scheme of Simplified Chinese Characters was promulgated in 1977 but was repealed in 1986 amid general disapproval.


Chinese Language: Mandarin vs. Cantonese

Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, with 70 per cent of Chinese speakers and a huge area stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast. This is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the relatively recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Cantonese is spoken by the people of Hong Kong, Macau and Guangdong province, including Guangzhou (previously Canton in English). Most foreign Chinese communities, such as those in London and San Francisco, also speak Cantonese thanks to emigration from Guangdong.


Localization vs. Translation

Internationalization (i18n).
Localization (l10n).
Globalization (g11n).
Localizability (l12y).

What is TRANSLATION: 

Translation - This applies to fairly literal, "word for word." This is often out of necessity.  If you want to make sure that a person in China understands how to use a product (such as a medical device) manufactured in USA, it is important that the source and target-language text match up precisely. This effort often just impacts more literal content such as documentation, legal, manuals, etc. So, your functional areas here might be technical publications, compliance, HR, support, etc., and is typically billed per word.


What is LOCALIZATION:

Localization refers to the adaptation of a product, application or document content to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target market (a locale).”

This is a more involved process whereby the target-language content is adapted to more effectively convey a similar meaning or connotation in the target culture. Idiomatic expressions, puns and marketing material generally fall into this category, but localization can apply to any type of content based on what your business objectives are. The key point here is that your target-language version will often not be a literal translation.  As an example, if you want to convey the phrase "Like father, like son" in Chinese, it would read as something like "Tigers do not breed dogs." Although this doesn't match up with the source content, it has the same connotation in the target culture. 

Localization affects more the content that is driving customer action.  Web sites, marketing campaigns, branded content would all fall into this category and the majority of this would fall under advertising, marketing and business development. It can be billed per word or hourly or as a flat fee per project. Often thought of only as a synonym for translation of the user interface and documentation, localization is often a substantially more complex issue. Localization may even necessitate a comprehensive rethinking of logic, visual design, or presentation if the way of doing business (eg., accounting) or the accepted paradigm for learning (eg., focus on individual vs. group) in a given locale differs substantially from the originating culture.

Localization is sometimes written as l10n, where 10 is the number of letters between l and n. i18n allows applications to support and satisfy the needs of multiple locales, thus “enabling” l10n. It is because of i18n that we are able to localize all of the Mozilla project within its pantheon of applications and open the web up to the world!

2016年12月12日星期一

"A.C.T." stands for "Ace Chinese Translation"!

As a China-based translation/localization team with a 21st century global vision, we are a group of highly dedicated and skilled professional Chinese translators and localizers devoting to the efficient cultural and business communications between the east and the west.

Surviving on quality and diligent in client service, we are proud of being a truly specialized regional language vendor focusing on a limited number of language pairs. Committed to always delivering outstanding output for each and all assignments, big or small, we combine various expertise and knowledge of professionals in our team to meet any particular requirements of our clients'. Core members of our professional team are from both linguistic and technical backgrounds with credentials and degrees from recognized universities or other industrial institutions.

The source text we handle include two Eastern Asian languages (Korean & Japanese) and several major European languages (English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Danish, German), and we focus only one target language – Chinese, with all of its variations: Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainess, Sichuanese, etc. (The latter three variations are actually just some local dialects, and their writing forms are all the same as the Mandarin). 

A.C.T. is based in several local cities of China, and we speak, write, read and listen in Chinese everyday - we are part of this language and this culture. If you require us to translate from Chinese into your language (for example: translate Chinese into English), we can still handle and the output will be good enough for information or general reading purpose, but please don't expect for perfect native-feel yet. Recently we've been hiring native foreign language translators to improve on this aspect.  

We understand our strengths clearly - and we will not compromise. With our clients' long-term success in mind, we know that our uncompromising approach to excellence makes sense.




Testimonials - What our clients have to say about our services:
"Assigning our Chinese projects to A.C.T. really gives us the peace of mind! Experts!"
Raymond Luo, Eastern Words (Hong Kong) 
"I send important materials back to you as you are so efficient and good :) and we never get complaints but only praise for your work."
Julia, GES (United States)
(We wrote: "You know, we claimed marvelous client support..."). Client wrote: "AND MARVELOUS IT IS!"
Jason, Lingua Intl. (United States)
 
"Nowadays it's not easy to find such a dependable translators doing as great as you guys are! "
Noa. Harvest Translation. (Israel) 
"Excellent translation works! Working with you makes my life easier, Wallace!"
Tony Zhang, Freelancer (United States)
"Great news! According to client's feedback, the quality is superb! They liked it, and will surely send over more batches! We're going to keep you busy for this month! Be ready for it. :)"
Marit, ICOM (Danmark)
"You guys really know the stuff and delivered a quality job! True professionals! Please also extend my thanks to your linguists!"
Lisbeth (Australia) 
"Yes, quality & details-oriented! You are setting a standard for all fellow agencies."
Jackson Wang (China)
"My editor seems to have some difficulty - though the file is big, she was unable to identify "enough issues" to make amendments - this means you guys had really done a great translation job there! THANKS!"
Porter, AGOOL (France)
"That's what we call the PROFESSIONAL approaches! Keep up with your good works!"
Matthews, Tek Media (Canada)